Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 56

INGREDIENT ISSUES
There are a range of
other moisture-enhancing
ingredients in the
marketplace. Use, including
forms and addition levels,
is regulated by USDA.
Carrageenan, a
seaweed extract,
is one such water
binder long used
in fully cooked meat
products, most notably ham and
Carrageenan is a
water binder often
used in fully cooked
meats such as
ham and poultry.
poultry. There are three types of carrageenan
classified by seaweed source, which influences
its performance. Kappa carrageenan, for
example, is the form typically used in meat
processing, as it forms a strong, brittle-like gel
that improves sliceability, lowers cook loss,
decreases purge loss and enhances texture.
Carrageenan, like starches and some fibers,
are classified as hydrocolloids and recognized
for their ability to bind water. Potato starch, for
example, has a low gelatinization temperature
and swells fast. This, combined with its bland
flavor and neutral color, make it very adaptable
to fully cooked meat applications.
Native waxy rice starch has been shown
to improve yield in both phosphate and
phosphate-free products. In a phosphate-free
system for chicken, for example, rice starch
increased yield seven percentage points higher
than the control. In a phosphate-containing
system, there was even greater impact, as
much as 18 percentage points over the control.
These benefits are due to the structure of
amylopectin and its ratio to amylose in rice
starch. The configuration ensures that there
is very low retrogradation, enabling water
retention to be maintained after the poultry
has been packed.
Citrus fiber ingredients are another
option. Derived from various citrus plants, the
ingredient contains both insoluble and soluble
fiber, which contains natural intact pectin.
This contributes to its high water-binding and
emulsification properties. Fine grades are
made for injections while coarser ingredients
are more suited for ground and comminuted
meat products.
Most moisture-enhancing ingredients are
multi-functional, which is why it's not a onesize-fits-all
product development platform.
Knowing your end-product goals is critical for
56 MEAT+POULTRY | 11.21 | www.meatpoultry.com
success. When adding any type of water binder
to meat and poultry, it is best to start at a low
use level and then slowly increase addition, as
needed, to the maximum allowed. If levels are
too high in a product, it may develop a soft,
gummy texture, or even a slimy surface.
NON-THERMAL PROCESSING
In addition to working with ingredients, process
must be considered. In general, the higher the
heat, the greater the potential for moisture
loss in just about every food product. Heat,
however, is also necessary for food safety. That
changed when high-pressure processing (HPP)
entered the equation. The HPP technology
has been the most adopted non-thermal
manufacturing process in the food industry
with a current ever-growing implementation,
according to Tomas Bolumar, PhD, head of the
Department of Safety and Quality of Meat, Meat
Technology, Max Rubner Institute, Kulmbach,
Germany, and lead author of " High-pressure
processing of meat: Molecular impacts and
industrial applications, " which was published
in the January 2021 issue of Comprehensive
Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.
The report states that meat products represent
about a quarter of all HPP foods.
Often referred to as cold pressure
technology, HPP is a method of preserving
packaged food products using extremely high
pressure. The process leads to the elimination
of harmful bacteria while maintaining a higher
yield of vitamins, minerals and enzymes, and
preserving a fresher taste. Moisture is also
contained in the package. The technology may
be used on a variety of fresh food products,
including meat, poultry and seafood, to
increase shelf life without preservatives. It's
also possible to reduce sodium, a natural
preservative, in HPP meat products, enabling
sodium reduction claims.
Bolumar and his colleagues reviewed the
extensive research conducted in the past
decade regarding the molecular impacts of
HPP on microorganisms and endogenous
meat components, such as structural proteins,
enzyme activities, myoglobin and meat color
chemistry, and lipids, all of which impact
the texture, color and oxidative changes in
meat and poultry. The use of HPP has also
been explored for its use in meat and poultry
tenderization and for structure formation in the
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Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Intro
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 8
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 9
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 10
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 11
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 12
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 13
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 14
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 15
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 16
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 17
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 18
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 19
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 20
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 21
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 22
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 23
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 24
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 25
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 26
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 27
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 28
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 29
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 30
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 31
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 32
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 33
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 34
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 35
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 36
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 37
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 38
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 39
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 40
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 41
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 42
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 43
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 44
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 45
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 46
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 47
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 48
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 49
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 50
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 51
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 52
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 53
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 54
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 55
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 56
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 57
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 58
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 59
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 60
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 61
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 62
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 63
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 64
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 65
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 66
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 67
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 68
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 69
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 70
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 71
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 72
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 73
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 74
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 75
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 76
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 77
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 78
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 79
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 80
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 81
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 82
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 83
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 84
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 8
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/-meatpoultry-december-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-november-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-ground-meat-trends-technology-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-september-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-august-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-july-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-june-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-may-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-meat-alternatives-may-2021
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https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2021_02_01
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https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_12_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_11_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_10_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_09_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_08_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_07_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_06_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_05_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_04_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_07_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_06_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_05_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_04_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_04_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_11_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_10_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_10_01
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