Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 55

such hybrid products containing real cultured
animal fats combined with plant-based
ingredients can offer consumers a meatier and
moister experience than wholly plant-based
meat products, representing a significant
improvement in what currently exists in the
alternative meat market.
But such technology is a long way off from
commercial scale. For now, processors are
focusing on best practices for manipulating
protein structure to bind moisture to keep
product safe and delicious.
ALL ABOUT THE PROTEIN STRUCTURE
The meat and poultry industries have long
relied on injecting whole muscle with a
brine solution containing sodium chloride
and sodium phosphates. The two function
synergistically through several mechanisms
to increase the water-binding ability of meat
proteins. Phosphates basically work by raising
the pH of meat, which causes protein fibers
to unfold, opening up the protein structure.
Once opened, phosphates and water bind with
protein molecules.
" Salt causes depolymerization of myosin
as well as a downward shift in the protein's
isoelectric point, " said Christina DeWitt,
PhD, director and professor at Oregon State
University Seafood Research & Education
Center, Astoria, Ore. " Sodium phosphates
dissociate the acto-myosin bond, further
increasing solubilization and relaxation of the
protein structure, and increase meat pH. These
effects translate to a significantly heightened
ability of salt/sodium phosphate-injected meat
to retain injected fluid throughout storage,
display and cooking. "
Phosphates, which are naturally
derived ingredients obtained from mined
phosphate rock, are " generally recognized
as safe " (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug
Administration. Phosphate ingredients contain
the element phosphorus combined with metal
cations, such as potassium and sodium. They
are one of the building blocks of all life, with
every living cell - plant and human - requiring
it. Most fertilizers include phosphorus, even
those certified organic. Some phosphates,
albeit not those typically used in meat and
poultry, are included on the list of the 5% of
nonorganic ingredients allowed in organic
certified foods.
www.meatpoultry.com | 11.21 | MEAT+POULTRY
55
Processors rely on an array of phosphates
for different functions. Most are linear
molecules and contain a single phosphate
(ortho), two phosphates (pyro) or three
or more phosphates (poly). There are also
metaphosphates, which are composed of
several phosphates in a ring-shape structure.
They differ in solubility and their impact on
finished product pH, which is why processors
will often use blends of phosphates to achieve
specific finished product attributes.
The pH of phosphates can range from about
5 to more than 10, but most are at neutral pH
7 or higher. Neutral and acidic phosphates
may enhance desirable cured color. The more
acidic the phosphate, the lower its waterbinding
capacity. More alkaline phosphates will
raise the pH of the meat, which increases the
muscle's water-holding capacity.
Most phosphates are sodium based; thus, if
reducing sodium content is a concern, it might
make sense to opt for potassium phosphates,
when available. However, because potassium
often contributes bitter notes, there may
be an impact on flavor. Regardless of type,
phosphates tend to be self-limiting, as too
much negatively impacts flavor and quality. The
USDA limits the amount of phosphate that can
be used in meat and poultry to 8 oz per 100 lbs
of product.
Phosphates are permitted in whole muscle
bone-in and boneless products. The application
of phosphates for whole muscle products is
by injection, vacuum or static marination.
For ground and comminuted systems such as
sausages, hot dogs, bologna and meatballs,
phosphates are applied in a dry or in
solution form.
One way to keep plantbased
products moist is
to combine them with
novel fat ingredients.

Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Intro
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 8
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 9
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 10
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 11
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 12
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 13
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 14
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 15
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 16
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 17
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 18
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 19
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 20
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 21
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 22
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 23
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 24
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 25
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 26
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 27
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 28
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 29
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 30
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 31
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 32
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 33
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 34
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 35
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 36
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 37
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 38
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 39
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 40
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 41
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 42
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 43
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 44
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 45
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 46
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 47
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 48
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 49
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 50
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 51
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 52
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 53
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 54
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 55
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 56
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 57
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 58
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 59
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 60
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 61
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 62
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 63
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 64
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 65
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 66
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 67
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 68
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 69
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 70
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 71
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 72
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 73
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 74
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 75
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 76
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 77
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 78
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 79
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 80
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 81
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 82
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 83
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 84
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 8
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/-meatpoultry-december-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-november-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-ground-meat-trends-technology-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-september-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-august-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-july-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-june-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-may-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-meat-alternatives-may-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-april-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-march-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2021_02_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2021_01_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_12_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_11_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_10_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_09_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_08_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_07_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_06_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_05_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_04_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_03_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_02_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_01_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_12_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_11_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_10_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_09_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_08_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_07_11
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_06_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_05_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_04_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_03_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_02_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_01_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_12_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_11_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_10_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_09_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_08_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_07_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_06_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_05_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_04_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_01_01_mp
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_06_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_09_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_08_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_07_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_06_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_01_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_12_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_11_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_10_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_09_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_08_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_07_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_06_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_05_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_04_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_02_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2009_01_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2008_12_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2008_11_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2008_06_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2008_02_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2008_01_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2007_12_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2007_11_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2007_10_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2007_09_01
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