Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 21

would be included in the " nutrition "
domain are access to water and feeding
practices that maintain the animal's
body condition and health. An example
of a poor nutrition practice would be a
lack of roughage in cattle feed, which
results in a high percentage of animals
having severe liver abscesses.
The " physical environment " domain
would cover all of the places an animal
lives. This would range from pastures to
indoor buildings. Many transportation
issues would also be under this
domain. Some examples would be
heat stress, cold stress and vibration
during transport. Today, a major area
of concern is the need for shade in
feedlots. Ammonia levels and other air
quality issues inside buildings would
also be covered. The " environment "
domain would also apply to issues such
as gestation stalls for sows and battery
cages for hens. All the contentious
housing would be within this domain.
The " health " domain includes
both infectious disease, injuries and
bruises. Lameness assessments would
be under this domain. Other areas
would be swollen hocks and injuries
from fighting. Indicators of infectious
disease, such as lung lesions, parasites,
coughing, nasal discharge and death
loss are all included.
The fourth domain is " behavioral
interactions. " For example, can the
animal express normal behavior? One
of the problems is determining what
exactly normal behavior is. It is easy to
assess abnormal behavior such as tail
biting in pigs and stereotypic repetitive
behavior. Some examples of abnormal
behavior are tongue rolling in Jersey
dairy cows and bar biting in sows.
These behaviors can be reduced or
prevented by providing environmental
enrichments on the farm such as straw
or items for pigs to chew or nest boxes
for hens. Pigs have a strong natural
instinct to chew and root in their
environment and hens have an instinct
to hide when they lay their eggs. On the
farm, these highly motivated behaviors
need to be accommodated.
The fifth domain is " affective
mental state. " It can be either positive
or negative. Research results have
clearly shown that both negative and
positive emotions can be measured.
Painful procedures, such as castration
or dehorning, would be in this category.
Castration has been extensively studied.
Providing medication for pain relief will
reduce the levels of stress hormones
such as cortisol. Stresses resulting
from handling practices, such as use
of electric prods, are also in the fifth
domain. Studies clearly show that
shocks from electric prods and cattle
vocalizations associated with excessive
pressure from a restraint device are
associated with increased levels of
stress hormones. Squealing in pigs
and electric prod use shortly before
slaughter is associated with both poorer
pork quality and more PSE. When
pigs squeal or are poked with electric
prods during the last five minutes
before stunning, blood lactate levels
are increased. High lactate is associated
with a decrease in pork quality.
One easy-to-understand example of
positive emotional state is cud chewing
in cattle and sheep. If cattle, either on a
farm or in a stockyard, are content and
relaxed, they will chew their cuds. One
of the best examples of the expression
of positive emotions on the farm is the
reactions of dairy cows when they use
motorized grooming brushes. There are
many videos online which show that
cows love them. They will move around
in many directions so that the brush can
groom many areas of their body.
All the numerical scoring systems
and animal-based outcome measures
that are part of good welfare programs
should be used when the Five
Domains system is implemented.
Handling measures would be under
both " affective mental state " and the
" environment " domains. The North
American Meat Institute scoring
system would be an important part of
a program that uses the Five Domains.
I am a big proponent of numerical
scoring because it enables managers
and employees to determine if handling
and stunning practices are improving.
Some may ask how the Five
Freedoms could be incorporated into
the Five Domains. The first of the Five
Freedoms would be covered under
nutrition. Thermal discomfort can be
placed in the environment domain.
Freedom from injury and disease
would be under health. The freedom
to express normal behavior could be
placed in the behavior domain. The
fifth domain would include pain, fear
and distress.
I'm a big proponent of numerical
scoring because it enables managers and
employees to determine if handling and
stunning practices are improving.
www.meatpoultry.com | 11.21 | MEAT+POULTRY 21
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Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Meat+Poultry - November 2021

Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Intro
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 8
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 9
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 10
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 11
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 12
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 13
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 14
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 15
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 16
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 17
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 18
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 19
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 20
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 21
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 22
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 23
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 24
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 25
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 26
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 27
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 28
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 29
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 30
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 31
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 32
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 33
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 34
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - VDG - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 35
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 36
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 37
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 38
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 39
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 40
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 41
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 42
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 43
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 44
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 45
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 46
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 47
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 48
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 49
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 50
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 51
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 52
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 53
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 54
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 55
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 56
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 57
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 58
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 59
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 60
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 61
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 62
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 63
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 64
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 65
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 66
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 67
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 68
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 69
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 70
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 71
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 72
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 73
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 74
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 75
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 76
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 77
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 78
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 79
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 80
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 81
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 82
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 83
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - 84
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2021 - Marel - 8
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/-meatpoultry-december-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-november-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-ground-meat-trends-technology-october-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-september-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-august-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-july-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-june-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-may-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/special-supplement-meat-alternatives-may-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-april-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/meatpoultry-march-2021
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2021_02_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2021_01_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_12_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_11_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_10_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_09_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_08_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_07_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_06_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_05_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_04_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_03_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_02_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2020_01_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_12_01
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https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_10_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_09_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_08_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_07_11
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_06_01
https://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2019_05_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_12_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_09_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_08_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_07_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_06_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_05_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_04_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2018_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2018_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2017_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2016_07_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_11_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2015_01_01_mp
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_11_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2014_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2013_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2012_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_06_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2011_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mp/2010_09_01
http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_08_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2010_06_01
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http://digital.meatpoultry.com/sosland/mp/2007_12_01
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