Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 38

INGREDIENT ISSUES

often use blends of
phosphates to achieve
specific finished
product attributes.
Processors need
to be aware that most
phosphates are sodium
based; thus, if reducing
sodium content is
a concern, it might
make sense to opt for
potassium phosphates, when available.
However, because potassium often
contributes bitter notes, there may be
an impact on flavor. Regardless of type,
phosphates tend to be self-limiting, as
too much negatively impacts flavor
and quality. Nevertheless, USDA limits
the amount of phosphate that can be
used in meat and poultry to 8 oz per
100 lbs of product.
Phosphates are permitted in
whole muscle bone-in and boneless
products. The application of
phosphates for whole-muscle
products is by injection, vacuum
or static marination. For ground
and comminuted systems such as
sausages, hot dogs, bologna and
meatballs, phosphates are applied
in a dry or in solution form.
Deli meats in convenience
store products have
processors exploring
ingredient options.

Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is also a
traditional water binder in fully cooked meat
products, most notably ham and poultry.
There are three types of carrageenan classified
by seaweed source, which influences its
performance. Kappa carrageenan, for
example, is the form typically used in meat
processing, as it forms a strong, brittle-like gel
that improves sliceability, lowers cook loss,
decreases purge loss and enhances texture.
Two years ago, Applegate, Bridgewater,
NJ, started removing carrageenan from its
poultry deli meat varieties because of growing
consumer concerns regarding its safety. Some
studies suggest it is highly inflammatory and
toxic to the digestive tract.
Nothing has changed in the regulatory
world in terms of its safety and use in foods.
In fact, being plant derived, it's allowed in
vegan foods, and in the United States, it can be

MEAT+ POULTRY | 11.20 | www.meatpoultry.com

Tyson Foods Inc.

38

SUBSTITUTE INGREDIENTS

included in organic foods, too.
The company switched to organic
potato starch as a clean label waterbinding ingredient. Potato starch has a low
gelatinization temperature and it swells fast.
This, combined with its bland flavor and
neutral color, make it very adaptable to fully
cooked meat applications.
Potato starch is one of many hydrocolloids
that offer simpler labeling. Native waxy rice
starch is another. It improves yields in both
phosphate and phosphate-free products.
In a phosphate-free system for chicken,
for example, rice starch increased yield seven
percentage points higher than the control.
In a phosphate-containing system, there was
even greater impact, as much as 18 percentage
points over the control.
These benefits are due to the structure of
amylopectin and its ratio to amylose in rice
starch. The configuration ensures that there
is very low retrogradation, enabling water
retention to be maintained after the poultry has
been packed.
Citrus fiber ingredients are another
option. Derived from various citrus plants, the
ingredient contains both insoluble and soluble
fiber, which contains natural intact pectin.
This contributes to its high water-binding and
emulsification properties. Fine grades are
made for injections while coarser ingredients
are more suited for ground and comminuted
meat products.
Other fruit-derived ingredients have waterbinding properties, too. Ingredients made of
prune plums, for example, accomplish this
because of their high sorbitol and pectin
content. Sorbitol is a slow-metabolizing sugar
alcohol that is also hygroscopic, which means
it attracts moisture. Fresh plum concentrate
can be added to a brine or marinade and
then injected into or vacuum-tumbled with
whole-muscle meat. Dried plum powder can
be massaged on the exterior of whole-muscle
meat to reduce purge. The same powder, as
well as dried plum puree, can be added to
sausages for moisture binding.
Honey may also assist with binding water,
while contributing a desirable sweet flavor,
and depending on the honey, some color. There
are important considerations when working
with honey in product development, as honey
contains enzymes that can break down other


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Meat+Poultry - November 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Meat+Poultry - November 2020

Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 1
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 2
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 3
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 4
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 5
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 6
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 7
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 8
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Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - VDG1
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - VDG2
Meat+Poultry - November 2020 - 51
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